First Primary Sources

Over the last two weeks I have been able to do a preliminary reading of two primary sources:

  1. Delanglez, Jean. Life and Voyages of Louis Jolliet, 1645-1700. Loyola University of Chicago. Institute of Jesuit History. Publications. Chicago: Institute of Jesuit History, 1948.
  2. Pease, Theodore Calvin, and Raymond Clarence Werner. The French Foundations, 1680-1693. Collections of the Illinois State Historical Library, Vol Xxiii. French Series, Vol. 1. Springfield, Ill.: Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library, 1934.

Both of these sources are located at Loyola University Chicago’s Cudahy Library. Life and Voyages of Louis Jolliet, 1645-1700 was compiled and written by Father Jean Delanglez, S.J., Ph. D. for the Institute of Jesuit History (Loyola University Chicago) in 1948. This source provides Father Delanglez scholastic argument in response to the original letters or writings of seventeenth-century Jesuit missionaries including Father Marquette and Louis Jolliet.

Though my complete understanding of apparent biases is still being developed, we can still see the (obvious) influence God has on these missionaries, even when writing about survival and the loss of missionary companions:

Louis Jolliet: [Letter]

“…my canoe capsized and I lost my men and a box werein were all my papers, my journal…I am much grieved over the loss of a ten year old slave who had been presented to me. He was of a good disposition, quick-witted, diligent, and obedient. He could express himself in French, and was beginning to read and write. I lost consciousness, and after four hours in the water, I was found by fishermen who never go to this place and who would not have been there if the Blessed Virgin had not obtained for me this grace from God, Who stayed the course of nature in order to rescue me from death.” (June 1674) (p.131)

The only immediate limitation of this source could be that the primary references exist within a secondary source’s comments. Although, I believe I may be able to find these letters and writings outside of this specific printed edition.

In comparison to Delanglez’ source, Theodore Pease’s work, The French Foundations, provides a direct translation to writings about the French frontier. Though not specifically referencing the Jesuit missionary efforts, pages 255 to 259 directly express France’s Indian trade policy–relevant to my understanding of Indian/French slave trading.

This source specifically mentions the King of France’s ordinance (May 2, 1681) that clearly outlined colonial policy for dealing with Indians and avoiding conflict with the Iriqouis. What I find interesting about this section is the fact that it does not specifically mention acquiring slaves from Indians, in exchange for presenting gifts, but it does, however, emphasize the importance of limiting and preventing French acceptance of reciprocal Indian gifts and further trading. The fact that I can not find a specific reference to Native American slavery is unusual, especially because it was through this French practice of presenting gifts that Marquette and other Jesuits received slaves during their missionary activities.

To digress, these last two weeks have provided me with the opportunity to start working with primary sources. At the moment, I am trying to get a stronger idea of what specific missionaries I want to investigate and trying to find the proper balance of incorporating information on Native American slavery and captive practices during this period.

The most surprising aspect of looking at these sources was how common it is for a book to include both the original French writing and the equivalent English translation with footnotes. If only I knew French, then I’d be able to better interact with these sources!

-Rob Baurley

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New topic, new beginning​

This last week I decided to re-visit my previous topic choice for the seminar. After speaking to Professor Karamanski, I realized that although I am interested in Native American legal history, a project on this subject would be too difficult for my research to turn out successfully. After weighing my options I have chosen to continue my previous scholarship on Native American captive slavery, as this practice related to French missions and Father Marquette.

I have begun to compile a bibliography covering the history of Marquette and Native American slavery in Illinois territory; also including information on French Louisiana connecting to New Orleans hub. My previous scholarship on the topic of Native American slavery was centered in South Carolina (1715). Though the low-country is different from the French territory, the scholarship on Indian slavery is still relevant.

After reading over Andres Resendez’ 2016 book, The Other Slavery: The Uncovered Story of Indian Slavery in America, I have located a few chapters that appear relevant to my new topic. Unsurprisingly, some of the sources Resendez references were incorporated into my research on the Yamasee Indians; specifically the Allan Gallay’s work with Native American history of trading Indian slaves. Through reading the seventh chapter of his book, I was able to locate a new source, Anthropologist Robbie Ethridge. Ethridge writes about the militaristic slave society that emerged over the practice of Indian slave trade.

For the next week, I hope to review my bibliography with Professor Karamaski and locate a solid primary source base, to begin researching. I also have a meeting with Dr. Roberts scheduled to learn about the best ways to use my research stipend. I hope that by the end of February, I will be in a place to begin outlining my findings and forming a solid argument.

RB